Expenses:
Definition and Examples


Previous lesson: Accrued Income (Part 2) 
Next lesson: Accounts Payable: Definition and Examples




In this lesson we're going to define expenses, look at some common examples, and go through a full expenses example with our sample business, George's Catering, where we'll see the accounts that are affected and what happens to the accounting equation. 

Income vs Expenses

In our previous lesson on income we defined this as:

The event that results in money flowing in to the business.

Examples of income are sales or services rendered. These events result in getting paid straight away or at a later date.

So, how do you think we define expenses?

Expenses are simply the events that result in money flowing out of the business.

If we pay our expenses immediately, then these events will result in money flowing out immediately.

But if like many businesses, we don't pay our expenses the same day they occur, there will be a short-term liability (debt), which we will pay later.

Expenses are like short-term or repeating services or items that we use up and need to pay for.


Examples of Common Business Expenses

Here are some examples of common business expenses:


salaries wages assistant call center

Salaries and wages

These are monthly or weekly payments to employees for work done for the business. Salaries are paid once a month at the end of the month, while wages are often paid to manual labor or casual workers on a more regular basis, such as once a week.


Telephone and Internet

Having office phones, cellphones and data connections are a must for any business. Paying the internet and telephone bill for telecommunications services is usually done on a monthly basis after receiving the bill from the phone and internet companies. Bills often include a fixed charged as well as a variable fee based on usage.


Water electricity utilities

Water and Electricity

These are basic utilities that are needed to run your office and/or factory and are usually paid at the end of the month after receiving the bill from the utility company.


Insurance

car insurance

Insurance payments are called premiums and are usually paid once a month.

Business insurance comes in various forms. One can purchase insurance against theft and damage for various business assets like an office building or equipment.

You can also purchase liability insurance, which protects your business in case there are any legal issues, such as a customer or other business that wants to sue your business for things like breaking a contract or accidentally harming them (many professionals like doctors need this kind of insurance in case they cause injury to a patient).


Advertising

Advertising is another common business expense. This includes any paid promotions, whether through traditional media such as print, radio or TV, as well as the variety of online advertising options such as search engines and social media platforms. Any promotion of your business would fall under advertising expenses.


Repairs and Maintenance

Repairs maintenance expense contractor

Repairs and maintenance is a common expense for many businesses. However, this kind of expense is not a regular one - it only occurs when machinery and equipment need to be maintained or repaired.

Repairs and maintenance expenses would apply if your business has office equipment like a copying machine or a computer server, or manufacturing machinery that needs to be serviced or repaired every now and then.


How Do Expenses Fit into the Accounting Equation?

Let's see how business expenses affect the basic accounting equation:

Expenses are the opposite of income.

More expenses (1) means less profit (2), which means less for the owner (3).

The owner’s equity and expenses are therefore conversely (oppositely) related, and thus expenses come into being (and increase) on the left side.

Cash Expense Example

As usual, we're going to use our sample business, George's Catering, to provide an example and see which accounts are affected and what happens to the accounting equation when we have a cash expense.

Please note: The introductory example shown below excludes the journal entry. To see the debit and credit journal entry for this cash expense transaction (with detailed explanations), check out the tutorial Expense Journal Entry.

George's Catering business stood as follows:

catering assistant food expenses

Here's the next transaction:

h) In order to be able to successfully pull off the catering job for the wedding and for future jobs, George decides to hire an assistant. He paid the assistant a $4,000 salary. What happens with this?


The salary paid to the assistant is an expense, and this amounts to $4,000.

Expenses take place (or increase) on the left, because it is the opposite of income and means less for the owner (owner’s equity).

Consequently, this expense results in $4,000 less for the owner.

As we pay the $4,000 cash, our assets also go down (on the left).

The owner now has a stake of $26,000 of the total assets of $31,000. Once again, the external parties’ stake (liabilities) will be the same as it was before this transaction ($5,000).

So as you can see, expenses result in the owner having a smaller share of the assets.

Alright! So that's it for our lesson on expenses.

If you're a bit uncertain about the accounting equation and how owners equity works, return to our earlier lesson called What is Owners Equity? to get more certainty on this key concept.

Or if you're comfortable with the lesson above, feel free to move along to the next lesson on accounts payable, where we'll go over expenses that aren't paid immediately but instead are owing.



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Previous lesson: Accrued Income (Part 2) 
Next lesson: Accounts Payable: Definition and Examples



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