The following transactions took place during 2016 for Palicio Security Services: 1. Paid the salaries payable from 2015. 2. On March 1, 2016, Palicio established a $100 petty cash fund to handle small expenditures. 3. Paid $4,800 on May 1, 2016, for one year's lease on the company van in advance. 4. Paid $7,200 on May 2,2016 for one year's office rent in advance. 5. Purchased $400 of supplies on account. 6. Purchased 100 alarm systems for $28,000 cash during the year. 7. Sold 102 alarm systems for $57,120. All sales were on account. (Compute cost of goods sold using the FIFO cost flow method) 8. Paid $2,100 on accounts payable during the year. 9. Replenished the petty cash fund on August 1. At this time, the petty cash fund had only $7 of currency left. It contained the following receipts: office supplies expense $23, cutting grass $55, and miscellaneous $14. 10. Billed $52,000 of monitoring services for the year. 11. Paid installers and other employees a total of $25,000 cash for salaries. 12. Collected $89,300 of accounts receivable during the year. 13. Paid $3,600 of advertising expense during the year. 14. Paid $2,500 of utilities expense for the year. 15. Paid a dividend of $10,000 to the shareholders.
Required: 1. Prepare the trial balance as at Dec 31, 2016 for Palicio Security Services Inc. 2. Prepare the income statement, statement of changes in equity and balance sheet for Palicio Security Services Inc.
A: This is actually a pretty tricky and advanced accounting exercise. I would recommend not to try it unless you have a pretty good understanding of the following topics (click for a tutorial on each):
Additionally, this exercise also deals with prepaid expenses and income received in advance, which are concepts I don’t go into detail about on this website (I only cover these topics in detail in my basic accounting books).
Here are some brief explanations though: Prepaid expenses are expenses you paid too early. Because it is paid too early it is as if you are owed the amount you paid, and the prepaid expense essentially is a debtor/receivable (an asset account).
In a similar way, income earned in advance means you have been paid money before delivering the services/products, and so it is as if you owe this amount. Thus, income earned in advance is a creditor/payable.
Note also that in this exercise we are dealing with a corporation, not a simple sole proprietor. With a corporation there are some new terms and concepts.
First of all there are many owners in a corporation and these owners are called shareholders.
Secondly, each of the shareholders owns shares in the corporation, which is also known as common stock.
And thirdly, instead of “drawings," we have dividends that are paid to all the shareholders from the accumulated profits (AKA retained earnings).
Okay, so now that we’ve cleared up all those terms, here’s the solutions, starting with the trial balance:
The opening balance of prepaid rent ($3,200) has been expensed out during 2016 as we have assumed this rent (that was paid the previous year) applies to the 2016 year. This is a likely assumption as there was a new prepaid rent cash payment on 2 May, 2016.
It is not stated in the exercise whether the unearned revenue of $980 at the beginning of 2016 was actually earned during the year. In this solution we have assumed that the unearned revenue still remains unearned at the end of 2016. However, it is quite acceptable to treat this as having been earned during 2016. If treating it as earned during 2016 one would add $980 to revenue and remove the unearned revenue account ($980 - $980).
Calculation of Cost of Sales and Closing Inventory (FIFO Basis):
Opening Balance of Merchandise Inv. (24 Units @ $265 + 1 Unit @ $260) $6,620 Purchased during the year 100 Units @ $280 $28,000 Total available for sale 124 + 1 Units (125 Units) $34,620 Sold*(Cost of Sales) 102 Units $28,180 Closing Balance of Merchandise Inv. 23 Units @ $280 $6,440
*Cost of Sales 102 Units (24 Units @ $265) + (1 Unit @ $260) + (77 Units @ $280) = $28,180
Note that the prepayments (prepaid office rent and prepaid motor lease) have been included under debtors/receivables. Likewise, the income received in advance (“unearned revenue" of $980) has been included under creditors/payables.
Hope you enjoyed the exercise and got some good practice with the trial balance and financial statements!